All About Lights

How to Shop for Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca


One of the easiest, cheapest ways to fight climate change may be shining down on you right now. The bulbs you use in your kitchen ceiling, chandelier, bedside lamp, or bathroom vanity can be either a major energy suck or a smart way to lighten your power load.

Incandescent light bulbs were a revelation when they were introduced by Thomas Edison in the late 19th century, but those bulbs were so inefficient that up to 90 percent of the energy they used was wasted as heat. These were the only option until 1980, when compact fluorescent lamps (known as CFLs) hit the market as a more efficient alternative. The early CFLs were not only prohibitively expensive but also too bulky for most lamps, and slow to fully light up. But over the next 20 years, CFLs improved dramatically.

A newer, more efficient halogen version, which used 25 percent to 30 percent less power than the old incandescents, became available in 2007. More recently, engineers have perfected the light-emitting diode (LED) light bulb (originally introduced in 1962) and in the past five years, LEDs have come a long way. Today, they are by far the best bet in terms of performance and energy savings, using one-sixth the amount of energy to deliver the same amount of light as CFLs and lasting at least 10 times longer. And the design innovations, combined with legal mandates, have cut our energy demand for lighting way, way back. In fact, until recently, lighting represented 15 percent of all residential electricity use, and dozens of extra power plants had to operate in order to keep those incandescent bulbs burning. 

Now, as the Biden administration moves forward with implementing commonsense light bulb efficiency standards that were illegally delayed by the Trump administration for more than two years, experts say implementing the new rules phasing out the sale of inefficient light bulbs will result in huge savings. All told, our collective actions will yield annual utility bill savings of $3 billion for consumers and prevent 222 million tons of dangerous, climate-warming carbon pollution over the next 30 years—equal to the annual greenhouse gas emissions of over 48 million vehicles. Given the enormous impact of such a small household fixture, it’s highly worth the effort to do your part for the climate and keep your sockets planet-friendly.

Do the Math

The average home has more than 40 light sockets. Should you add up all the bulbs lighting up your place and find yourself with a similar number, consider this: If you’re using incandescents and replace them all with LED bulbs, you’ll save more than $100 per year. Nationally, if all households phased out their incandescents and halogens and switched to light bulbs that save energy, it would break down to an annual savings of $12 billion.

When purchased in a multipack, LEDs that replace 60-watt incandescents are around $2 per bulb. LEDs are 85 percent more efficient than old incandescents, needing only around 10 watts (units of power) to deliver the same amount of light as the old 60-watt bulb.

Decode the Labels

Back when incandescents reigned, people got used to selecting light bulbs based on their wattage, even though that measurement referred to energy usage, not brightness. Now all bulbs come with information about the bulb’s lumens—a measure of the quantity of light—printed on the label. (The higher the lumens, the brighter the light.) To help consumers used to reading wattage levels, LED manufacturers usually include the incandescent-equivalent wattage on the package too. For example, the package might also say “60W replacement,” even though the LED likely uses only 9 or 10 watts.

While different brands use different terms, LED packages will always include a lighting facts label with a sliding scale indicating whether the bulb is “warm” or “cool.” Warm, or “soft white,” is reminiscent of the yellowish glow emitted by incandescents. At the other end of the spectrum, “cool white” gives off a light that’s slightly blue. You’ll find these qualities measured via the Kelvin scale, with bulbs ranging from around 2,700 to 3,000 Kelvin emitting warm light and 5,000 to 6,000 Kelvin producing bluish light. If you’re not sure which you prefer, try one of each. “See which one you like before buying 30 bulbs and retrofitting the whole house,” says NRDC energy efficiency expert Noah Horowitz.

Whenever possible, Horowitz recommends you choose bulbs that have earned the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Energy Star. If a manufacturer’s bulb has earned the star, it means that it meets a long list of requirements: It dims well, it doesn’t flicker, and it gives off a good light color—all while meeting strict energy efficiency standards. “It’s kind of an implicit endorsement that the bulb will be longer lasting,” Horowitz adds.

Make Some Swaps

If you’ve got incandescent or halogen bulbs, Horowitz suggests replacing them with LEDs even before those bulbs burn out. (The exception would be for older bulbs in places like closets or basements, where they’re used only occasionally.) “LEDs are a perfect one-for-one replacement for an incandescent,” Horowitz says. “They do everything the incandescent can do with the exception of one thing: They don’t waste energy.” Recently, there’s been a surge in LED sales, thanks to the vast number of affordable options on the market, with manufacturers spurred by the new efficiency standards to keep innovating. (Hundreds of varieties of LED bulbs currently meet the requirements.)

If you have CFLs and you’re happy with them, keep using them for the rest of their lifetime, since LEDs are only slightly more efficient. But if you’re not very fond of your CFLs—say, because they don’t dim or you find the light they cast unflattering—go ahead and switch them out.

Avoid the “Penny-Wise and Pound Foolish” Consumer Trap

While incandescents and halogens have already been phased out in Europe and will be eliminated in many other countries in the near future, they are still being manufactured in places like Mexico and China. And because they’re nominally cheaper up front than LEDs, many consumers may continue to buy incandescents and halogens if they’re available, despite their higher long-term cost. Remember: While LEDs can cost slightly more than less efficient bulbs, they typically pay for themselves in less than a year based on the reduced energy consumption alone.

Dispose of Your Old Bulbs Properly

Incandescent and halogen light bulbs can be tossed out, since they don’t contain any hazardous materials. Due to the small amounts of mercury contained in CFLs, however, those should be sealed into a Ziploc bag and brought to a local recycling center or a hardware store like Home Depot or Lowe’s. You can find the recycling center closest to you here.

And when your LEDs eventually burn out, you can put those in the trash too, since they don’t contain any hazardous materials. Because they do have some electronics in the base, these bulbs may be recyclable in the future, assuming new systems will be introduced to better dispose of these materials.

Spread the Word

Once you change the incandescent light bulbs in your home to LEDs, encourage your neighbors and friends to do the same. You can also contact your local retailers and urge them to stop selling incandescents and halogens if you spot them on the shelves. The more shoppers who take it upon themselves to work toward a more energy-efficient future, the better off we’ll be.

All About Lights

Light bulbs phased out in 2023. They disappear off store shelves by next summer.

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca


GREENSBORO, N.C. — You know the saying: you’re having a lightbulb moment. It’s a common description for all of a sudden, getting an idea or understanding something. Unfortunately, the lightbulb is about to be a thing of the past.

In 1879, Thomas Edison perfected the incandescent light bulb. Centuries later, his kind of bulb will be extinct. Manufacturers must stop making incandescent bulbs by January 1, 2023, and by the summer of 2023, they’re gone.

“Stores will be phasing them out, but they will no longer be legally sellable as of July 2023,” said Steven Nadel, Executive Director of The American Council For An Energy-Efficient Economy.

The US Energy Department has finalized rules that will require stores to no longer sell incandescent bulbs as of July 2023. Stores will only sell energy-efficient light bulbs like LED’s, which by the way is not a bulb.

LED stands for light-emitting diode. A diode is a semiconductor wrapped in plastic to protect the elements and focus the light.

The American Council For An Energy-Efficient Economy estimates only 30% of light bulbs sold in the U.S. in 2020 were incandescent bulbs.

LEDs are more expensive but can last up to 50 times longer than an old-school bulb.

Of course, when you’re at the cash register buying the more expensive bulb, the fact it’s going to last longer doesn’t help your wallet right away. This is why 2 Wants To Know went looking for a way to stretch your dollar.

This is one way. Your power company, and for the majority of us it’s Duke Energy, offers deals on energy-saving lights.
You can get them on average for $2 off the in-store price.

All About Lights

Possidento Therrien Electric has been supplying electrical needs since 1940

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca

All About Lights

Column: R.I.P. to that political troublemaker — the incandescent light bulb

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca


Fifteen years of political battles. Countless commentaries nationwide. Even a premature obituary.

This is what the unsuspecting incandescent light bulb has wrought.

The push to phase out the 19th-century technology to speed up use of more-efficient, longer-lasting light bulbs has spanned four presidential administrations.

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Debates raged — and that is not an overstatement — about energy savings, economics and government overreach. Laws were passed and lawsuits filed to both protect and do away with the disputed light source. Some people rushed to buy large quantities of incandescent light bulbs and hoarded them.

This may sound like a laughing matter and, to a point, it was. Surely, there were bigger concerns to expend such energy on. But serious environmental and cost issues were at stake, not to mention that a lot of people simply felt they should be able to choose what kind of light bulb they wanted.

There also were complaints that the early energy-saving bulbs weren’t all they were cracked up to be.

The latest chapter in this saga was written this week by the Biden administration, which finalized rules that will require manufacturers to sell energy-efficient light bulbs. The controversies of the past have largely faded. For some time, the industry has been shifting to compact fluorescent and LED bulbs that last up to 25 times longer than incandescent lighting and use at least 75 percent less energy, according to the Department of Energy.

After the new regulations take hold next year, the administration said consumers should save nearly $3 billion annually on utility bills, or about $100 for the average family. The shift is projected to reduce carbon emissions that warm the planet by 222 million metric tons over the next 30 years — equal to the amount of emissions generated by 28 million homes, the department says.

These days, most everyone seems to be on board. Environmentalists applauded the move, though some said it was too long in coming. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association said consumers have fully embraced improved LED lighting and called it “an unqualified success” with improvements through innovation.

Industry groups said in 2020 that only about 30 percent of light bulbs sold in the United States were incandescent or halogen incandescent bulbs.

Incandescent lights, which have been around since the 1800s, heat a wire filament to a specific temperature that then generates light, according to a description on the Light Bulbs Unlimited website. Most of the energy results in heat, not light. The wire is surrounded by a glass bulb that is usually filled with an inert gas.

LED, or light emitting diodes, wastes less energy because it produces little heat. Also, LED emits light directionally, rather than 360 degrees like incandescent. The website says that further “saves energy because (light) is focused on a certain degree instead of creating more energy for the entire 360 degrees.”

Like so many things, the fight over incandescent bulbs became partisan. It didn’t start out that way. The Energy Efficiency and Security Act of 2007, signed by Republican President George W. Bush, set evolving higher energy standards that incandescent bulbs increasingly couldn’t meet, even though they weren’t actually banned.

In 2011, House Republicans pushed legislation to scuttle the standards. The regulations were expanded under Democratic President Barack Obama, but in 2014 the Republican-controlled Senate cut funding to enforce the standards.

In 2019, President Donald Trump reversed the standards, the next wave of which was to kick in at the beginning of 2020.

Dan Brouillette, Trump’s energy secretary at the time, said the move was “to protect consumer choice by ensuring that the American people do not pay the price for unnecessary overregulation from the federal government.”

At a White House meeting in December of that year, Trump said, “The new bulb is many times more expensive, and I hate to say it, it doesn’t make you look as good,” according to The New York Times. At a subsequent event, he said, “We’re bringing back the old light bulb.”

This was similar to Trump’s criticism of low-flow toilets and shower heads, which he maintained did not work well, and appeared part of his overall efforts to scrap Obama’s environmental regulations.

Critics said dropping the light bulb standards would lead to higher energy bills and more pollution.

“The Trump administration is trying to protect technology that was first invented in the 1800s,” Andrew deLaski, executive director of the Appliance Standards Awareness Project, told National Public Radio in 2019. “It’s like trying to protect the horse and buggy from the automobile technology. It makes no sense to go back to technology from two centuries ago, when we have new technology today which saves consumers money and helps protect the environment by reducing the amount of power that we need.”

While light bulb manufacturers supported Trump’s action on incandescent bulbs, the industry was well on its way to transitioning to LEDs and other energy-efficient alternatives. After Trump’s rollback, California adopted its own light bulb standards that withstood a legal challenge from the industry.

However, Trump’s complaints resonated with some people (though perhaps not specifically regarding how LED lights made them look). At least early on, there was criticism that LED bulbs cost too much, weren’t bright enough and didn’t last as long as touted.

They have improved on all those fronts. The energy-saving bulbs still tend to be more expensive than incandescent bulbs, but the gap has lessened. Experts say savings on utility bills over the longer life of LED bulbs more than makes up for the difference.

In any case, it does seem the end is finally near for the incandescent light bulb. But you never know.

In a whimsical obituary for CNN, journalist Josh Levs wrote about how the traditional light bulb would “exit gracefully, making way for the next generation.”

Actually, the incandescent bulb hasn’t gone so gently into the night. The obit was published in 2013.

All About Lights

Hybrid solar lighting system at Patliputra Jn

Alfonso del Cristo Hilsaca Eljadue

Turco Hilsaca



Patna: The railways has furnished the entire circulating area of Patliputra junction with hybrid solar lighting system to ensure uninterrupted power supply during night and bad weather condition.
According to Danapur divisional railway manager (DRM) Prabhat Kumar, the hybrid solar lighting system has the auto-start system. Its switches get automatically on and off, the moment the sun rises and sets in.
“Railways is likely to save about Rs 2 lakh per annum with the installation this solar lighting system,” the DRM said.
The entire task of installing hybrid solar lighting system at the Patliputra junction has been accomplished under the direct supervision of Danapur senior divisional electrical engineer within stipulated time, he added.
According to railway sources, Patna Junction, Rajendra Nagar Terminal and Danapur station have already been furnished with solar lighting system.

All About Lights

Hybrid solar lighting system at Patliputra Jn

Alfonso del Cristo Hilsaca Eljadue

Turco Hilsaca



Patna: The railways has furnished the entire circulating area of Patliputra junction with hybrid solar lighting system to ensure uninterrupted power supply during night and bad weather condition.
According to Danapur divisional railway manager (DRM) Prabhat Kumar, the hybrid solar lighting system has the auto-start system. Its switches get automatically on and off, the moment the sun rises and sets in.
“Railways is likely to save about Rs 2 lakh per annum with the installation this solar lighting system,” the DRM said.
The entire task of installing hybrid solar lighting system at the Patliputra junction has been accomplished under the direct supervision of Danapur senior divisional electrical engineer within stipulated time, he added.
According to railway sources, Patna Junction, Rajendra Nagar Terminal and Danapur station have already been furnished with solar lighting system.

All About Lights

Time‑correlated single‑photon counting technique to visualize weak pulse electroluminescence

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca

TCSPC technique to visualize the weak pulse electroluminescence
Schematic diagram of the setup with TCSPC technique and the measured results. Credit: Xianfeng Qiao, Shu Xiao, Peisen Yuan, Dezhi Yang, Dongge Ma

Time‑correlated single‑photon counting (TCSPC) technique is a powerful way to measure the weak light signals. The basic principle behind TCSPC is the photoelectric effect in which an electrical charge is released by absorbing a photon. Compared to the traditional strategy of detecting analog photogenerated voltage, the TCSPC technique counts the single electron pulse created by single photons, which means its sensitivity can be up to single-photon level as its name implies. In fact, the TCSPC technique has been successfully employed to detect the transient/burst photoluminescence (PL) in many research fields, and the transient spectrometer is common equipment in many labs.

Dr. Xianfeng Qiao and Prof. Dongge Ma at South China University of Technology (SCUT), China, are interested in device physics of organic optoelectronics/spintronics devices. Specifically, they pay attention to both transient PL and electroluminescence (EL) profiles, which together provide a wealth of information about how devices work.

So they improved their spectrograph and combined it with a pulse generator. This improvement enables their transient spectrometer to record both transient PL and EL signals. With this improved spectrometer, energy transfer mechanisms and exciton evolution in organic light emitting diodes could be investigated in-situ. The researchers also proved that the superior sensitivity of TCSPC technique is helpful for extracting mobility. Detailed information could be found in Frontiers of Optoelectronics. This work will inspire those who want to measure weak pulse EL with a transient spectrometer. A simple and cost-effective solution is provided in this work.

Explore further

Strong light-matter coupling in organic crystals

More information:
Xianfeng Qiao et al, Improved transient electroluminescence technique based on time-correlated single-photon counting technology to evaluate organic mobility, Frontiers of Optoelectronics (2022). DOI: 10.1007/s12200-022-00021-8

Provided by
Higher Education Press

Time‑correlated single‑photon counting technique to visualize weak pulse electroluminescence (2022, April 28)
retrieved 6 May 2022

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

All About Lights

8K resolution Market Share and overview, Set for Rapid Growth and Trend by 2021-2028

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca


8K resolution Market Share and overview, Set for Rapid Growth and Trend by 2021-2028 – Energy Industry Today – EIN Presswire

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All About Lights

Grow Light For Poultry Farming Market To Owing To The High Demand, Growth And Consumption Of Poultry Products Worldwide

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca


(MENAFN– America News Hour)

Research Nester published a report titled “Grow Light for Poultry Farming Market : Global Demand Analysis & Opportunity Outlook 2030” which delivers detailed overview of the global grow light for poultry farming market in terms of market segmentation by type, installation, and by region.

Further, for the in-depth analysis, the report encompasses the industry growth indicators, restraints, supply and demand risk, along with detailed discussion on current and future market trends that are associated with the growth of the market.

The global grow light for poultry farming market is estimated to occupy a sizeable revenue by growing at a CAGR of ~6% during the forecast period, i.e., 2022 – 2030, owing to the rising demand and consumption of poultry products, increasing advancements related to poultry farming and growing adoption of smart poultry farming techniques. Apart from these, surge in promotion of usage of energy efficient devices for poultry by government is also expected to drive market growth in the forthcoming years.

The market is segmented by type and installation. Based on type, the light-emitting diode (LED) segment is anticipated to witness the fastest growth during the forecast period on the back of high energy efficiency and longer durability of these lights. Additionally, by installation, the segment for new installation is expected to observe a significant CAGR during the forecast period ascribing to the rising installation of modern grow lights by poultry farmers.

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Geographically, the global grow light for poultry farming market is segmented into five major regions, namely North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia Pacific, and the Middle East & Africa. Asia Pacific region is evaluated to grab the largest share and witness noteworthy growth in the market during the forecast period attributing to the presence of large poultry livestock and growing production of poultry grow lights in the region.

The research was global in nature and conducted in North America (U.S., Canada), Europe (U.K., Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Hungary, Belgium, Netherlands & Luxembourg, NORDIC (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark), Poland, Turkey, Russia, Rest of Europe), Latin America (Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Rest of Latin America), Asia-Pacific (China, India, Japan, South Korea, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand, Rest of Asia-Pacific), Middle East and Africa (Israel, GCC (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman), North Africa, South Africa, Rest of Middle East and Africa). In addition, areas like Market size, Y-O-Y growth & Opportunity Analysis, market players competitive study, investment opportunities, demand for future outlook etc. have been covered and displayed in the research report to ensure it dives deep to achieve strategic competitive intelligence in the segment.

Growing Consumption and Demand for Poultry Products to Drive Market Growth

It is estimated that the poultry meat consumption in the year 2030 will grow up to more than 150 kilotons. The value is calculated at almost 133 kilotons in 2021. The demand for poultry eggs, meat and related products is projected to increase significantly as a result of population growth and rise in individual consumption across the world. This is considered to be a crucial factor driving market growth in the near future.

However, less awareness about smart poultry in lower economic regions is expected to operate as key restraint to the growth of the global grow light for poultry farming market over the forecast period.

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This report also provides the existing competitive scenario of some of the key players of the global grow light for poultry farming market which includes company profiling of AGRILIGHT BV, OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH, General Electric Company, Signify Holding, Illumitex Inc, Gavita International B.V., Hawthorne Gardening Company, Heliospectra AB, Lumileds Holding B.V, LumiGrow Inc., and others. The profiling enfolds key information of the companies which encompasses business overview, products and services, key financials and recent news and developments. On the whole, the report depicts detailed overview of the global grow light for poultry farming market that will help industry consultants, equipment manufacturers, existing players searching for expansion opportunities, new players searching possibilities and other stakeholders to align their market centric strategies according to the ongoing and expected trends in the future.

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Research Nester is a leading service provider for strategic market research and consulting. We aim to provide unbiased, unparalleled market insights and industry analysis to help industries, conglomerates and executives to take wise decisions for their future marketing strategy, expansion and investment etc. We believe every business can expand to its new horizon, provided a right guidance at a right time is available through strategic minds. Our out of box thinking helps our clients to take wise decision in order to avoid future uncertainties.

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Samsung Electronics reports record sales in the first quarter

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca

Researchers at Samsung Electronics work at the company chip factory in Hwaseong, Gyeonggi. [SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS]

Researchers at Samsung Electronics work at the company chip factory in Hwaseong, Gyeonggi. [SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS]

Samsung Electronics reported record sales in the first quarter on Thursday, as solid memory chip and home appliance sales offset weak demand for system chips and sensors.  
Sales rose 19 percent to 77.8 trillion won ($61.4 billion) in the January-March period, an all-time high and above the FnGuide market consensus of 75.6 trillion won.
Net profit increased 58.6 percent on year to 11.3 trillion won in the first quarter, compared to an FnGuide forecast of 10.3 trillion won.  
The chip business generated 8.45 trillion won in operating profit, up 150.7 percent on year, as memory prices did not fall as much as expected while demand remained strong.  
“Memory business performance exceeded market forecasts as memory prices declined less than market expectations on solid demand,” the electronics maker said in a statement.  
The company’s contract chipmaking — or foundry ― business had its best first quarter ever, which Samsung attributed to robust demand and improved yields.  
“The 5-nanomter node is in a mature yield stage, delivering stable yields,” said Kang Moon-soo, senior vice president and head of Samsung’s foundry market and strategy team, during a conference call.  
“In the case of the 4-nanometer node, while there was a bit of delay in the initial yield ramp-up, we are back on the expected yield improvement curve since we’ve been focusing on early stabilization,” he said.  
The chipmaker plans to stick with its previously announced plan to mass produce 3-nanometer chips in the second quarter, ahead of TSMC, which is targeting the second half.  
“We’ve improved the node development system of the 3-nanometer process,” Kang said. “We now have verification for each stage of development. This will help us reduce the yield ramp-up period later on, improve profitability and ensure a more stable supply.”
According to press reports, the company has been experiencing yield-related challenges in the manufacturing of 3-nanometer chips. Sources close to the company have questioned whether Samsung Electronics will be able to stay on schedule.  
The company’s Mobile eXperience (MX) business, which covers smartphones and network equipment, generated 3.82 trillion won in operating profit, down 13 percent on year.
The consumer electronics division registered 800 billion won in operating profit, down 28.6 percent on year, but sales hit a record 15.5 trillion won. The company attributed the sales record to rising demand for premium products, like Bespoke-brand appliances.  
Operating profit for the display business rose by 202.8 percent to 1.1 trillion won. Sales of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) panels for mobile devices drove growth.  
The company said it will focus on high-end memory chips and appliances and seek to win more system chip and foundry orders.    
The tech company spent 7.9 trillion won in facility investment in the first quarter, with 6.7 trillion won going towards semiconductors.  
LG Electronics achieved record sales and operating profit in the first three months of the year, beating the market consensus.  
The upbeat result is attributed to a one-time gain related to licensing patents and to healthy sales of premium televisions and appliances.  
The electronics maker reported an operating profit of 1.9 trillion won in the first quarter, up 6.4 percent on-year and higher than the market consensus of 1.1 trillion won, which was published by FnGuide.
It’s net rose 19.8 percent to 1.4 trillion won, boosted by an 868.9 billion won extraordinary item, compared to a forecast of 697.3 billion won.
Sales were 21.1 trillion won, an 18.5 percent increase on year and higher than the market expectation of 18.7 trillion won.  
Shares of Samsung Electronics fell 0.3 percent to 64,800 won on Thursday. LG Electronics rose 0.84 percent to close at 120,500 won.


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Global Microdisplay Market to Grow At 17.1% CAGR during 2020–2030

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca


(MENAFN– P&S Intelligence) The global microdisplay market was valued at $1,145.6 million in 2020, and it is predicted to generate a revenue of $5,535.6 million by 2030. According to the estimates of the market research company, P&S Intelligence, the market will progress at a CAGR of 17.1% from 2020 to 2030 (forecast period). The major factors driving the expansion of the market are the increasing use of heads-up display (HUD)-integrated advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and surging number of near-to-eye (NTE) applications.

The rising incidence of road accidents is pushing up the requirement for ADAS, especially in China, Japan, and the U.S. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), around 1.3 million deaths are recorded every year because of road accidents. According to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), the U.S. launched a project in order to promote the incorporation of ADAS in the trucking industry in 2019, owing to the ability of ADAS to mitigate the prevalence of road accidents and fatalities.

The government made an investment of $0.65 million in the project, which is predicted to be completed by the end of 2021. Besides, the soaring need for microdisplays in NTE applications is also propelling the microdisplay market across the globe. These screens are being increasingly used in NTE devices, such as HMDs, augmented reality (AR)/virtual reality (VR) headsets, full-color projection devices, and personal electronics, such as cameras and mobile phones.

Depending on technology, the microdisplay market is divided into liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS), organic light-emitting diode (OLED), digital light processing (DLP), and liquid crystal display (LCD) categories. Out of these, the OLED category is predicted to register the highest growth rate in the market in the coming years. This is ascribed to the mushrooming utilization of OLED screens in electronic devices and appliances, such as smartphones and TVs. Additionally, these screens provide a high pixel density and compact size, which is further boosting their popularity globally.

The market is also classified into automotive, military and defense, industrial, consumer electronics, retail and hospitality, sports and entertainment, and medical devices. Amongst these, the consumer electronics category held the largest share in the market during the last few years. This was because of the extensive use of microdisplays in virtual reality (VR) devices and digital cameras. Moreover, the high requirement for displays that can provide a wide viewing angle and clearer image also boosted the progress of the category between 2015 and 2020.

Across the world, the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region contributed the highest revenue to the microdisplay market in the years gone by, and it is predicted to be the fastest-growing region in the upcoming years as well. This is attributed to the existence of numerous original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and consumers and rapid industrialization in the region. Industrial, consumer, military and defense, aerospace, and automotive are the leading consumers of microdisplays in the region. Thus, the surge in these industries is contributing massively toward the boom of the regional market.

Thus, the demand for microdisplays will soar all over the world in the forthcoming years, primarily because of the rising adoption of HUD-integrated ADAS in automobiles.


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Incandescent light bulbs to be phased out under Biden rules

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca


The Biden administration is pulling the plug on incandescent light bulbs in favor of energy-efficient light-emitting diodes, or LEDs. The phaseout of the old-fashioned bulbs is aimed at reducing utility bills and conserving energy.

The U.S. Department of Energy on Tuesday said it was raising energy efficiency standards for light bulbs, giving manufacturers 75 days to phase out incandescents before an outright ban in July 2023. Incandescent bulbs use a higher wattage than LEDs for the same level of brightness.

The average American family will save $100 a year, or $3 billion collectively, as a result of the rules, which should also reduce energy costs for schools and businesses, the DOE estimates. Further, the rules are projected to reduce carbon emissions by 222 million metric tons over 30 years, the equivalent to the emissions generated by 28 million homes in one year, according to the agency.

Bulbs will now have to emit a minimum of 45 lumens — or brightness — per watt, reviving standards that had been set to go into effect in 2020, but which were blocked by the Trump administration. The former president once complained of how he and others appeared in LED lighting. “I always look orange,” Trump told the House Republican Conference Member Retreat Dinner in Maryland in 2019.

Still, the new rules were decades in the making, and reflect a bi-partisan undertaking. Energy efficiency standards were part of legislation approved during George W. Bush’s presidency, and then picked up by the Obama administration. 

“The lighting industry is already embracing more energy-efficient products, and this measure will accelerate progress to deliver the best products to American consumers and build a better and brighter future,” Secretary of Energy Jennifer Granholm said in a statement

LED savings

Approximately 30% of light bulbs sold across the U.S. in 2020 still involved incandescent or halogen incandescent options. LED bulbs last at least 30,000 to 50,000 hours versus the average 1,000 hours of light cast by incandescent bulbs, according to the DOE.

Swapping out one incandescent bulb for an LED will save $40 to $90 over 10 years, according to the Consumer Federation of American and the National Consumer Law Center. “Using a low estimate of $55 in savings and assuming a household has 45 incandescent bulbs, switching to LEDs translates into $1,000 in net savings over 10 years,” they said in a statement.

“We applaud forward-looking retailers such as Ikea who have already pulled inefficient light bulbs from their shelves and are selling only energy-efficient LEDs. We urge other retailers to follow their lead and do the same so consumers can benefit starting with their very next purchase,” Richard Eckman, energy advocate at the CFA, said in the release.

Charlie Harak, senior attorney at the National Consumer Law Center, called the switch welcome news for all consumers, but especially for financially struggling households who shoulder “on average, disproportionately higher energy burdens.” 

Environmental groups also cheered the DOE’s steps. “We are long overdue to phase out inefficient old-fashioned light bulbs,” Joe Vukovich, an energy efficiency advocate at the Natural Resources Defense Council, said in a statement. “LED bulbs, which will replace the old incandescents, use one-sixth the amount of energy to deliver the same amount of light and last at least 10 times longer.” 

All About Lights

How Cities Can Feed Themselves: A Ten-Point Plan

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca


Copyright © April 2022 by the Tony Blair Institute for Global Change

All rights reserved. Citation, reproduction and or translation of this publication, in whole or in part, for educational or other non-commercial purposes is authorised provided the source is fully acknowledged. Tony Blair Institute, trading as Tony Blair Institute for Global Change, is a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales (registered company number: 10505963) whose registered office is One Bartholomew Close, London, EC1A 7BL.

All About Lights

Japanese researchers create LED lights with rice husks

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca

Japanese researchers create LED lights with rice husks

April 27, 2022


In Japan, milling rice to separate the grain from the husks produces about 100 million tons of rice husk waste globally each year. Scientists searching for a scalable method to fabricate quantum dots have developed a way to recycle rice husks to create the first silicon quantum dot (QD) LED light. Their new method transforms agricultural waste into state-of-the-art light-emitting diodes in a low-cost, environmentally friendly way.

The research team from the Natural Science Center for Basic Research and Development, Hiroshima University, published their findings in the American Chemical Society journal ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering.

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All About Lights

Going cubic halves the efficiency droop in InGaAlN light-emitting diodes

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca

Credit: Unsplash/CC0 Public Domain

Today, it is widely accepted that the large Auger coefficient is the main cause for the large (~50%) efficiency droop in traditional hexagonal-phase InGaAlN LEDs. Yet, this explanation is inadequate to account for the low efficiency droop in gallium arsenide- and gallium phosphide-based LEDs, as those have similar Auger coefficients.

In IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Can Bayram, Jean-Pierre Leburton and Yi-Chia Tsai at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign show that the coexistence of strong internal polarization and large effective mass accounts for ~51% of the efficiency droop under high current densities in hexagonal-phase green InGaAlN LEDs (h-LEDs) compared to cubic-phase InGaAlN green LEDs (c-LEDs).

Previously, the efficiency droop reduction in non-polar h-LEDs was attributed to the decrease of carrier leakage from active region, overlooking the interplay between internal polarization and Auger recombination. Indeed, recent experiments suggest that the efficiency droop reduction in non-polar h-LEDs is in fact due to carrier delocalization, (a situation different than in polar h-LEDs) that results in stronger electron-hole wavefunction overlap, lower quantum well carrier densities, and lower Auger recombination rates. The team found out that large carrier effective mass promotes carrier localization and degrades band-to-band optical transition matrix element.

According to this new interpretation, the researchers show that switching from polar h-LEDs to c-LEDs quenches the efficiency droop from 45% to 22% (i.e. a 51% reduction) thanks to polarization elimination and reduction. It is further found that the quantum efficiency of c-LEDs is much immune to the Auger electron-hole asymmetry, the increase of Auger coefficient, and thus efficiency degradation mechanisms. Hence, cubic-phase InGaAlN green LEDs offer an appropriate solution to quench the efficiency droop.

Explore further

Large Auger coefficient myth in III-nitride LEDs debunked?

More information:
Yi-Chia Tsai et al, Quenching of the Efficiency Droop in Cubic Phase InGaAlN Light-Emitting Diodes, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices (2022). DOI: 10.1109/ted.2022.3167645

Going cubic halves the efficiency droop in InGaAlN light-emitting diodes (2022, April 27)
retrieved 6 May 2022

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part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Alfonso del Cristo Hilsaca Eljadue

En Montes de Mara se entregaron 100 toneladas de yuca a personas desfavorecidas.

The AGM Huellas de Piedra Foundation collaborated with farmers in El Carmen de Bolvar to purchase 100 tonnes of cassava and 60 tonnes of prickly yam for a dual purpose. First, to help peasants who were concerned that they wouldn’t be able to sell the commodity due to overproduction, and second, to help the less fortunate people of Bolvar municipalities, who are now receiving cassava.

Dos toneladas de yuca fueron entregadas hoy a la comunidad de Cantagallo en El Carmen de Bolvar, y los pobladores agradecieron el aporte, que calificaron como un regalo de Dios. El alcalde de El Carmen de Bolvar, Carlos Torres Cohen, afirmó que la donación de yuca es de gran ayuda para las familias más necesitadas ya que pueden prepararla de diversas formas y porque saben que es de buena calidad si proviene de Los Montes de Mara.

“Deseo personalmente expresar su agradecimiento a la Fundación AGM Huellas de Piedra por este necesario aporte de yuca que fue una espléndida dificultad de la administración y del gobernador de Bolívar, Vicente Blel Scaff, quien en estos días escuchó las preocupaciones de los agricultores de la Sierra Alta por temor a perder el producto por la sobreproducción del tubérculo”,
oca raíz batata nuez de tierra
eddo él dijo.

De igual forma, Carmen Herrera, ama de casa del Cantagallo
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 lugar que fue destinatario del aporte, mencionó que cada familia recibió tres kilogramos de yuca, lo que les ayuda a sobrellevar las circunstancias comunes. “Ganamos la liga”, explicó, “pero una de las cosas más significativas es que ahora tenemos yuca”.

Las donaciones de yuca y ñame para la gran mayoría de familias vulnerables del municipio seguirán en El Carmen, según un representante de la Fundación AGM Huellas de Piedra. Todo con la asistencia de la Armada Nacional, cuyos soldados administran la entrega.
Alfonso del Cristo Hilsaca Eljadue

En plena cuarentena, empresas de Cartagena se suman a la distribución de socorros.

A través de su fundación, AGM Desarrollos ha construido más de 2.000 mercados en los barrios y distritos de la ciudad.

AGM Desarrollos realizó una jornada de donación de mercados en barrios de escasos recursos de la ciudad, entregando cerca de 2000 mercados a través de su Fundación AGM Huellas de Piedra.

La iniciativa, que hasta el momento ha ayudado a más de 2.000 familias, cuenta con el apoyo de la Armada Nacional. La distribución continuará en el municipio de Turbaco en los próximos días con el fin de atender las necesidades de muchas personas de escasos recursos durante esta temporada de parón de actividades provocada por la pandemia mundial del Covid 19.

“La mayoría de los ocupantes se basan en la frugalidad informal o son personas de la tercera edad.

Por eso considero pensarlo como un espléndido gesto filantrópico”, expresó Ariel Valdez, dirigente del barrio Pablo Sexto.
Por su parte, Roger Suárez Castillo, capitán del Cabildo Indígena Zenú de Membrillal, expresó su agradecimiento a la fundación por el aporte de las solicitudes. “Esta ayuda permitirá a nuestras familias aliviar los víveres al mismo tiempo que el aislamiento”.

A este respecto, Melissa Hilsaca, vocera de la Fundación AGM Huellas de Piedra, aseguró que esta organización está comprometida con la ciudad. “Nos solidarizamos con todas las familias que, a causa del Covid-19, se han preocupado por mantener sus hogares. Por eso, además de brindar ayudas alimentarias en diversos sectores de Cartagena y nuestro departamento, logramos adicionalmente asegurar a nuestros trabajadores la continuidad en sus contratos, para que, además de obtener una sonrisa de alivio, tengan la capacidad de seguir adelante cumpliendo un rol a su favor. familias en Este período ha sido realmente difícil para todos. Creemos en Dios así que

Alfonso del Cristo Hilsaca Eljadue

Alfonso del Cristo Hilsaca’s “Stone Footprints” Foundation VIA AGM Desarrollos, Provided Tablets to Promote Virtual Learning During the Pandemic.

Alfonso del Cristo Hilsaca’s “Stone Footprints” Foundation VIA AGM Desarrollos has been praised in the world of corporate charity, and rightly so. The company’s foundation has notably addressed much more than monetary donations.

The foundation is obviously determined to make a real difference with the charity they deliver. Maybe, it’s because they do not like seeing money go to waste, but for whatever reason, the people struck down by the hardships of the Covid19 pandemic, are grateful for the assistance.

Let’s break down why Alfonso del Cristo Hilsaca’s “Stone Footprints” Foundation is noted for providing so much. Instead of just writing a check for publicity, the foundation, with the persistence, passion, and drive of Melissa Hilsaca, sets to work and determines the logistics of donation, and how to make it count.

With so much need for virtual learning, the team, in brilliant fashion, deliver state-of-the-art computer tablets to students of The University of Cartagena. The foundation determines what is needed, how to appropriate those needs in the most efficient manner, how to enact delivery in a suitable time frame that will make the donation viable, as well as other logistics that confront such complex tasks.

The donation was substantial. Initially, 170 students were provided with tablets, connectivity equipment, and other assistance that would ensure the ability to continue full courses virtually. This was a spectacular provision for these students, however, there were other students still in need.

The foundation returned to provide additional students with these same amenities within a short time frame. Again, the logistics, were coordinated in part by the Academic Council and presented by the Vice-Rectory of University Welfare through its solidarity fund and the “Stone Footprints” Foundation VIA AGM Desarrollos.

A Student, Leo Elfuzan, stated that he was personally touched by the donation and it helped him continue to graduate from the University. Leo works as a freelance developer and audiovisual creation expert.

All About Lights

What is LCD? Liquid crystal displays explained

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca


Looking to buy a new TV, smartphone, monitor or any other type of product that has a display? It’s likely you’ve come across the term LCD in some form or fashion. 

Read on to learn what a liquid crystal display is and how it compares to other screen types, including LED and OLED

What is LCD? 

LCD stands for ‘liquid crystal display’, a reference to the liquid crystal material used in the display to strategically block out light. It’s a display type commonly used across a range of TVs, monitors, tablet and phone screens.

How does it work?

An LCD display consists of liquid crystal sandwiched between two pieces of polarised glass (or substrate) and a backlight. 

The backlight passes through the first layer of glass as electrical currents direct the liquid crystal molecules to move and align. This causes the polarised light (waves of light essentially) to rotate, allowing only specific levels of light to reach the second substrate. 

This light becomes the light source for the hundreds or thousands of RGB (Red, Green, Blue) pixels packed into the display, the combination of which creates the image seen on-screen. 

However, the quality of the image depends on more factors than just whether or not the display uses LCD technology. 

Other concerns to consider the number of pixels in a display, along with what type of LCD the screen uses. For example, IPS LCD displays offer better contrast ratios and viewing angles than TN LCD displays. 

Is LCD better than LED? 

Comparing LCD to LED (light-emitting diode) isn’t as straight-forward a comparison as you might think. 

Like LCD displays, LED uses liquid crystal technology to control where light can and cannot go. The distinction between the two was originally made because LCD screens used CCFL (cold cathode fluorescent lamps) as their light source, which were larger and less efficient than those found in LED TVs. 

However, these days LCD displays commonly use LED backlights as their light source, making the two labels virtually the same.

How does it compare to OLED? 

Over the last few years, LCD displays have found themselves gradually replaced by OLED from TVs to flagship phones such as the Galaxy S22 and iPhone 13 to the Nintendo Switch OLED.

Unlike LCD screens, OLED (organic light-emitting diode) displays don’t require a backlight. Rather OLED screens can switch individual pixels on for deeper blacks and more intense contrast. The lack of a backlight also means the screen is thinner, leading to slimmer designs and reduced power consumption when compared with the older display type. 

However, OLED generally costs much more to produce and can suffer from issues like image retention and burn-in if the screen is left displaying a static image for too long, although screensavers and reducing the brightness of the screen can manage these issues.

You can find out more about how OLED displays compare to LCD ones in our guide to OLED vs LED LCD.

You might like…

All About Lights

Sony TV 2022: every Master Series and Bravia OLED announced so far

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca

The Sony TV 2022 lineup is looking really strong going into April. From the X90K LED TV all the way up to the Master Series Z9K 8K TV and the newly announced mid-range A75K OLED TV, Sony’s bringing a barrage of blockbuster screens to homes in 2022.

At the top of that list is the truly next-generation A95K QD-OLED TV. It’s the first QD-OLED unveiled by a major manufacturer, beating other giants like Samsung and LG to the punch. And, based on our time with it at a preview event, it will deliver everything we had hoped for from the latest and greatest panel technology.

Step down from the premium models, though, and you’ll find mid-range displays, like the X90K or X80K 4K LED TV, the follow-up to last year’s Sony X90J and X80J. We awarded the X90J 4.5 out of 5 stars when we reviewed it and believe it’s one of the best mid-range 4K TVs money can buy in 2021.

Whatever your budget and panel preference, Sony’s got something that should fit your needs. Not sure where to start? Let our guide to the Sony 2022 TV lineup put you on the right track – now updated with US pricing.

New Sony TVs for 2022

The all-new Sony A95K QD-OLED TV

(Image credit: Sony)

Sony Master Series Z9K 8K Mini LED TV: The Master Series Z9K is Sony’s brand new flagship 8K TV, for when you want to buy the best of the best in terms of picture quality. Sony’s Cognitive Processor XR tech returns, alongside an XR Backlight Master Drive that aims to provide hugely impressive contrast along with true deep blacks.

US price: 85-inch: $9,999.99, 75-inch: $6,999.99

Sony Master Series A95K QD-OLED TV: Sony’s big OLED for 2022 is the A95K, improving over its predecessors with a new QD-OLED panel that Sony claims will boost color brightness by up to 200% compared to “conventional TVs.” The A95K’s XR OLED Contrast Pro tech also aims to adjust brightness for peaks in glare and particularly shadowy blacks, so as to not make the overall picture look too washed out or too dark to see.

Additionally, Sony’s XR Cognitive Processor and an all-new heat dissipation system, the A95K will be able to control contrast and maximize brightness better than before, giving it a huge advantage over other, more traditional OLED screens.

US price: 65-inch: $3,999.99, 55-inch: $2,999.99

Read more about the Sony Master Series A95K QD-OLED TV

Sony X95K 4K Mini LED TV: Another premium TV in Sony’s repertoire in 2022 is the X95K series that uses mini-LED tech, powered by the Backlight Master Drive technology that was originally implemented in the Sony Z9D from a few years back. With the ability to control even minute patches of mini-LEDs, Sony states that the X95K has some of the best contrast control of any LED-LCD TV with higher peak luminance and even less blooming.

US price: 85-inch: $5,499.99, 75-inch: $3,799.99, 65-inch: $2,799.99

Sony Master Series A90K and A80K 4K OLED TV: Next up are Sony’s new OLED TVs for 2022, the A90K and A80K. These new OLEDs use temperature distribution mapping and an all-new OLED panel for higher peak luminance. Both OLEDs also have two HDMI 2.1 ports for 4K resolution and 120Hz refresh rate much like the A95K.

X90K US price: 48-inch: $1,499.99, 42-inch: $1,399.99
X80K US price: 77-inch: $3,799.99, 65-inch: $2,499.99, 55-inch: $1,999.99

Sony A75K 4K OLED TV: Sony’s newly announced A75K OLED TV is certainly one to keep an eye on, and while the manufacturer hasn’t yet revealed its price or launch date, its specs are particularly interesting for what’s supposed to be a mid-range TV. With the A75K, you’ll get the same two HDMI 2.1 ports and 120Hz refresh rate as its A90K and A80K counterparts, as well as a gorgeous OLED panel provided by LG Display. It’s slightly pared down compared to those models, but for anyone looking for an OLED TV on a tighter budget, the A75K is worth keeping on your watchlist.

Sony X90K 4K LED TV: Like last year’s X90J, the X90K is positioned as the more affordable mid-range option in Sony’s 2022 lineup. But that doesn’t mean it’s skimping on quality. The X90K features the same XR Cognitive Processor tech as its more expensive counterparts, and has a precise Full Array LED panel for clear picture quality.

US price: 85-inch: $3,299.99, 75-inch: $2,199.99, 65-inch: $1,599.99, 55-inch: $1,399.99

New Sony TVs for 2021

The Sony Z9J Master Series LED-LCD 8K TV in a large grey room

(Image credit: Sony)

Sony Z9J Master Series LED-LCD 8K TV (available in 85- and 75-inches): This is the 8K TV in Sony’s Z9J Master Series. 

What makes the Z9J appealing is that it uses the Cognitive XR Processor to enable a feature called XR Contrast Booster 15 that greatly enhances contrast by boosting brightness and black levels with better zone controls, and has the highest-performing upscaling algorithm in the lineup that it needs to fill all those pixels. 

It has X-Anti Reflection that reduces glare and X-Wide Angle viewing that helps you see every detail from anywhere in the room and both a light and color temperature sensor that reads the intensity of the ambient light in the room and adjusts the picture accordingly. Last but not least, the legs of the Z9J can be adjusted to fit both wide and narrow TV stands, or it can be wall-mounted if that works better for your space. 

  • Sony XR-75Z9J: $7,999 (around £5,700 / AU$10,300)
  • Sony XR-85Z9J: $9,999 (around £7,100 / AU$12,800)

The Sony A90J OLED TV in a grey room next to a plant

(Image credit: Sony)

Sony A90J Master Series OLED 4K TV (available in 83-, 65- and 55-inches): The A90J earns its Master Series status by being one of the brightest OLED TVs ever made – this is because of Sony’s work on thermal dissipation and the new Cognitive XR Processor that can accurately balance the RGB and White subpixels simultaneously for extreme brightness. 

You’ll be getting 4K resolution, as well as 4K/120Hz video at 48Gbps through multiple (at least two) HDMI 2.1 ports, and both VRR (variable refresh rate) and ALLM (auto low latency mode). The A90J also supports Dolby Atmos passthrough, as well as HDR10 and Dolby Vision dynamic HDR. That said, it’s not cheap (you can see the pricing below). 

Read more: Sony A90J OLED

  • Sony XR-55A90J: $2,999 / £2,699 (around AU$3,800)
  • Sony XR-65A90J: $3,999/ £3,499 (around AU$5,100)
  • Sony XR-83A90J: $7,999 / £6,999 (around AU$10,300)

The Sony A80J OLED 4K TV on a black table in a grey room

(Image credit: Sony)

Sony A80J OLED 4K TV (available in 77-, 65- and 55-inches): The Sony A80J is the lesser of the two Sony 2021 OLEDs, but only because it lacks the higher brightness of the A90J. Even without it, the A80J has some seriously impressive technical specs and uses XR 4K Upscaling, XR Triluminos Color Pro and XR Motion Clarity. 

Because it’s not as fully specified as the A90J, we’re expecting the A80J to be the more affordable of the two OLEDs, and if it can deliver most of the same performance then it will be a seriously compelling alternative to the LG CX OLED and LG BX OLED from last year. 

Read more: Sony A80J OLED 

  • Sony XR-55A80J: $2,299 / £1,999 (around AU$3,000)
  • Sony XR-65A80J: $2,799 / £2,699 (around AU$3,600)
  • Sony XR-77A80J: $4,499 / £4,199 (around AU$5,800)

The Sony X95J 4K LED-LCD TV on a black TV stand in a room with lots of windows

(Image credit: Sony)

Sony X95J 4K LED-LCD TV (available in 85-, 75- and 65-inches): The Sony X95J is the first step down in that middle range of the Sony TV lineup from the pricey premium models. That said, you’re not sacrificing a ton of features to be here: the X95J still offers the XR Contrast Booster that the Master Series uses (though it won’t be as bright) and the XR 4K Upscaling technology. It has X-Wide Angle, XR Motion Clarity and 3D Audio Upscaling thanks to the Cognitive XR Processor, but will only have X-Anti-Reflection on the two larger models. 

In terms of changes compared to last year’s X950H/XH95, one of our favorite Sony TVs from 2020, the X95J is slimmer by about 10mm and adds HDMI 2.1 ports for 4K/120 gameplay – perfect for the PS5 and Xbox Series X. That was a huge sore spot on last year’s X950H, so it’s great that Sony has added them in for this year.

Read more: Sony X95J

  • Sony XR-65X95J: $2,299 (around £1,600 / AU$3,000)
  • Sony XR-75X95J: $2,999 (around £2,100 / AU$3,800)
  • Sony XR-85X95J: $4,499 (around £3,200 / AU$5,800)

The Sony X90J LED-LCD TV in a room with sunlight shining in

(Image credit: Sony)

Sony X90J and X92J LED-LCD TV (available in 75-, 65-, 55- and 50-inches, X92 available in 100-inches): While the X90J doesn’t have all the fancy features like the color sensor of the Z9J or the X-Contrast Pro of the A90J OLED, the X90J has the one feature that really counts: the Cognitive XR Processor. With it, the X90J has the same XR 4K Upscaling as the other TVs, the same XR Triluminos Pro tech to enhance colors and 3D Surround Upscaling. 

It has Dolby Atmos passthrough and 4K/120 support. It has the potential to offer unparalleled value to anyone who wants a cinephile-quality TV at an affordable price, and we can’t wait to test it for ourselves. The X92J model is the 100-inch option.

Read our full Sony X90J review

  • Sony XR-50X90J: $1,299 / £1,149 (around AU$1,700)
  • Sony XR-55X90J: $1,499 / £1,249 (around AU$2,000)
  • Sony XR-65X90J: $1,799 / £1,499 (around AU$2,400)
  • Sony XR-75X90J: Price TBA
  • Sony XR-100X92J: Price TBA

The Sony X80J LCD TV on a white background

(Image credit: Sony)

Sony X80J / X81J LED-LCD TV (available in 43, 50, 55, 65, 75-inch): If you want an even cheaper option, the Sony X80J is a step-down model with a 60Hz panel, meaning you won’t get the benefits of HDMI 2.1 found on the X90J above. You will, however, get a 4K HDR panel, the Google TV platform, and the capable X1 processor from previous Sony TV ranges. The X80J also packages all this at around half the price of the X90J, starting at $749 / £584 (around AU$1,000) for a 43-inch model. The Sony X81 variation in the UK adds some more advanced motion processing and will cost slightly more at smaller sizes too.

  • Sony XR-43X80J: $749 / £584 (around AU$1,000) 
  • Sony XR-50X80J: $849 / £667 (around AU$1,100) 
  • Sony XR-55X80J: $949 / £899 (around AU$1,250) 
  • Sony XR-65X80J: $1,149 / £1,049 (around AU$1,500) 
  • Sony XR-75X80J: $1,699 / £1,499 (around AU$2,200)


Sony 2022 TV technology 

A woman singing on a TV screen with a visualization of the Sony TV Cognitive XR processing technology

Acoustic Surface Audio+ vibrates the panel itself to emit sound from across the screen. (Image credit: Sony)

So, what’s new with Sony TVs this year? A few things, actually. First and foremost, however, is that new panel technology, QD-OLED.

QD-OLED, for those who are just hearing about it, combines the self-emissive organic light-emitting diodes that give OLED its perfect black levels with the color saturation of quantum dots. The result is a screen that has 200% of the color saturation of a traditional LED-LCD screen, with higher peak brightness and wider viewing angles than an OLED. 

To make the most of all those pixels, Sony uses its Cognitive XR processor, which brings an upgrade in capability to its 2022 TV range. 

The Cognitive XR chip utilizes a “completely new processing method designed to replicate the ways humans see and hear”, detecting a so-called “focal point” in the TV’s picture to focus processing around the more important parts of the image. “While conventional Artificial Intelligence (AI) can only detect and analyze picture elements like color, contrast and detail individually, the new processor can cross-analyze an array of elements at once, just as our brains do,” Sony says.

Each model of the Sony 2022 line-up uses the new Google TV smart platform instead of the older Android TV software. That means you’ll essentially get a Chromecast with Google TV built into your TV which, considering that a standalone streaming stick would set you back $49 / £59 / AU$99, feels like a nice perk. Baked in support for Google Assistant is a given, though you can also connect your TV to smart speakers like the Amazon Echo (which uses Alexa) too.

In an interview with TechRadar, Sony told us that many of its 2022 TVs support 4K/120Hz with at least two 48Gbps HDMI 2.1 ports, and the Master Series will also offer a third HDMI port that’s 8K/60Hz-enabled. VRR (variable refresh rate) and ALLM (auto low latency mode) features are supported for gamers, helping to ensure responsive play and a smooth picture, while eARC (enhanced audio return channel) allows for lossless audio passthrough from the TV to a connected soundbar.

A woman waiting for a train visualizing Cognitive XR processing

Cognitive XR processing could be a game-changer for Sony TVs (Image credit: Sony)

You’ll also get Dolby Vision support across the series as well as Dolby Atmos passthrough in every model as well.

We’ve also seen the return of Sony’s Acoustic Surface Audio+ technology, which uses motor-driven ‘actuators’ placed around the set’s casing to vibrate sound across the whole panel. It’s a neat concept in theory, though it can serve to muddy the audio somewhat as it spreads it around.

The much-marketed Netflix Calibrated Mode makes a return, too – even if we wouldn’t bother using it – but IMAX Enhanced is also supported for those with compatible content.

We’ll have more info on lower-tier models as well as pricing and availability on the TVs we saw at CES 2022 later this year, so be sure to check back with us in a few months’ time.

Everything you need to know about the best TVs of 2022:

Best TV 2022: the best flatscreen televisions from the past year

Best 65-inch 4K TV: the best big screen TVs for any budget

TV stands: finding the best TV stand to suit your living room cinema needs

All About Lights

Best 40-inch TVs of 2022

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca


Updated Sep 12, 2022 12:13 PM

In 2022, smaller TVs feel a bit out of fashion. Manufacturers are prioritizing 50-, 55-, and 65-inch models over smaller sets, limiting options for those of us looking for the best 40-inch TVs. As nice as it would be to own an 85-inch big screen, we don’t all have the space—or the money—to invest in a panel the size of a mattress. That said, there are still plenty of big brands putting good small TVs out there, such as Samsung and LG. These sets have all the same features as the larger models and don’t demand such high prices. Whether you’re looking to outfit your office, or simply prefer to keep your entertainment center small, these are the best 40-inch TV models we think you should look at today.

How we picked the best 40-inch TVs

I have over a decade of experience reviewing tech gear for sites like TechnoBuffalo, XDA Developers, iMore, and Android Central. During that time, I tested TVs, tablets, and mobile phones—basically any device with a screen. When I’m not testing products, I’m probably relaxing in front of a TV, watching my favorite movies, or playing video games. The PopSci staff also has extensive experience testing and reviewing TVs and provided insight for this guide, which we combined with critical reviews and user impressions to identify the best brands and models.

To find the best 40-inch TVs, I looked for ones that feature a healthy balance of features, price, and technology. That includes specialty features we typically associate with the larger TVs, but are often in smaller high-end models, including HDMI 2.1, HDR, and Smart TV platforms. Just because a TV is considered “small,” doesn’t mean it is any less mighty.

Things to consider before buying a 40-inch TV

The best 40-inch TVs are great for compact spaces like bedrooms, dorms, and smaller living rooms. They’re also good for people looking to spend less on a high-quality TV, as screen size plays a large role in TV pricing. Aside from a couple of prestigious exceptions, you can often find a 40-inch TV for under $500. (Many of our picks, however, cost a bit more.)

Resolution and high-dynamic range (HDR)

The higher resolution your TV, the sharper and more detailed the image looks. Almost all modern TVs output at 4K resolution. You can still find older budget 40-inch models limited to Full HD (1080p), but we don’t recommend buying one. Frankly, the difference in price should be very low, and buying a 4K model will ensure the TV remains viable for a longer time. 

Likewise, there are no 8K TVs available in small sizes yet. We also generally don’t recommend buying an 8K TV yet, as there’s very little content available at that resolution.

Many newer TVs also support a display technology called high-dynamic range, or HDR. HDR allows TVs to show a wider range of brightness on-screen, allowing for nuanced depictions of extremely bright and low-light situations. Imagine a scene at night with a headlamp as the only light source. HDR technology can better display those scenarios. There are two primary HDR standards: HDR10 and Dolby Vision. All HDR-compliant TVs support HDR10 but only some models support the dynamically shifting Dolby Vision.


If you’re looking for the best of the best, there are two premium display technologies that stand apart from traditional LED displays. Picking an OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) versus QLED (Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diode) display will both enhance the quality picture of your TV, often while jacking up the price. If you’d like an in-depth explanation of the technology and recommendations for the best displays with that specific tech, we recommend checking out our in-depth guides to the best OLED TVs and the best QLED TVs

For now, let’s just say QLED and OLED TVs are more expensive than conventional LED TVs, especially at this size. They are usually the best option available, which is why you’ll see them on this list, but do not reflect the potential savings you can find by shopping for a smaller TV.

Refresh rate

Refresh rate is an important spec if you play games on PS5 and Xbox Series X, or watch a lot of sports. Refresh rate, measured in hertz (Hz), tells you how many times your TV can “redraw” its image per second, allowing for higher frame rates in games and TV shows. Until about two years, most TVs maxed out at 60Hz, but some newer TVs support a higher, 120Hz refresh rate, allowing compatible games and shows to run more smoothly. At this juncture, a high refresh rate is only a notable feature if you have or want a new game console.

As we cover in our in-depth guide, you will need to plug your consoles or other devices into HDMI 2.1 ports (with appropriately compatible HDMI cables) to access higher refresh rates at 4K resolution. Any TV that supports 120Hz will have at least one HDMI 2.1 input among its connection options, but obviously more is always better.

The best 40-inch TVs: Reviews & Recommendations

The best 40-inch TVs run the gamut from value-driven models that offer up fantastic prices to high-end models that will cost you a pretty penny but feature all the bells and whistles we look for in larger premium TVs. There’s no need to compromise on picture quality, just because you don’t have the room (or the need) for a big screen.

Best overall: Samsung Q60A

Why it made the cut: Samsung’s Q60A offers the features, picture quality, and price to make it one of the best TVs of this size.


  • Size: 43”
  • Display: QLED 4K
  • Refresh rate: 60Hz
  • Ports: HDMI 2.1 x 3, USB 2.0 x 2


  • Excellent contrast
  • Great upscaling
  • Fantastic QLED display


  • No local dimming
  • So-so viewing angles

Samsung’s Q60A is a 43-inch powerhouse that more than keeps up with its larger siblings. The 4K QLED panel features HDR10+ support, an updated version of the format similar to Dolby Vision. It’s vibrant with incredible contrast and great brightness, which makes for a great viewing experience even in a room with a lot of ambient light.

The Q60A offers three HDMI 2.1 ports, despite the fact that it doesn’t feature a 120Hz refresh rate. (You’d have to pay an extra $300 for the Q70A line to get it.) It does, however, support 4K upscaling, which will artificially enhance lower resolution content to bring it closer to the 4K experience.

The Q60A includes a Smart TV platform powered by Samsung’s Tizen, so you can easily access streaming services like Netflix, and you get support for Amazon Alexa Google voice assistants. Samsung’s TV also features one of the slimmest designs in a TV of this class, with a depth of just 1-inch without the stand.

Best for gaming: Samsung QN90A

Why it made the cut: The Samsung QN90A supports next-gen gaming features while showcasing QLED technology.


  • Size: 43”
  • Display: QLED 4K
  • Refresh rate: 120Hz
  • Ports: HDMI 2.1 x 3, HDMI 2.0 x 1, USB 2.0 x 2, Ethernet, Headphone Jack


  • Thin, gorgeous design
  • Game-specific enhancements
  • Low input lag


  • Only one HDMI 2.1 port
  • Expensive

Samsung’s QN90A is a Mini-LED powered QLED TV that produces excellent picture quality. One of our favorite TVs for gaming, it delivers great brightness, contrast, and local dimming, and it also offers highly precise color—things you want when watching a movie or playing video games.

Speaking of video games, the QN90A includes gaming features for players on Xbox Series X and PlayStation 5 owners, including 120Hz and variable refresh rate support. It also supports Samsung’s new Game Bar feature, which makes it easy to access and change video features, including the aspect ratio for a more cinematic experience. The one downside–there’s only one HDMI 2.1 port, so you will need to swap your consoles in when you want to play games in 4K at 120 frames per second. We wouldn’t consider that to be a deal-breaker, but it’s certainly an inconvenience. All in all, Samsung’s TV provides an excellent picture and support for the features gamers want.

Best OLED: LG C1

Why it made the cut: The LG C1 offers one of the best OLED displays on the market with plenty of great features.


  • Size: 48”
  • Display: OLED 4K
  • Refresh rate: 120Hz
  • Ports: HDMI 2.1 x 4, USB 2.0 x 2, Ethernet


  • Amazing picture
  • Gorgeous design
  • HDMI 2.1


  • So-so brightness
  • Expensive

The LG C1 is, simply put, our favorite TV. LG’s elite OLED panel generates an absolutely incredible image with deep, vibrant colors and true blacks only an OLED can achieve. It is very expensive, especially compared to other TVs this size, but you’ll see the money you spend in every show you watch.

As one of LG’s best, the C1 features all the bells and whistles that you want for gaming and other premium home theater setups, including 120Hz refresh rate, G-Sync and FreeSync variable refresh rate support, and four HDMI 2.1 ports.

There are a couple of helpful automatic modes, too: Filmmaker Mode and Game Optimizer mode. The former turns off motion smoothing and wrangles in the colors for the most accurate image the TV can produce. The Game Optimizer mode puts all your game settings in one place, allowing users to quickly toggle picture settings, refresh rate, and aspect ratio.

Best designer: Samsung’s The Frame

Why it made the cut: The Frame by Samsung features a stylish alternative design that fits its 43-inch form factor well.


  • Size: 43”
  • Display: QLED 4K
  • Refresh rate: 120Hz
  • Ports: HDMI 2.0 x 3, HDMI 2.1, USB 2.0 x 2, Ethernet


  • Elegant design
  • Easily blends with decor
  • Beautiful QLED display


  • Pricey
  • Can be difficult to mount

Have you ever wished your TV could disappear when you aren’t using it? The Frame, one of Samsung’s “lifestyle” TVs, can masquerade as a piece of art to let you style your space without building it around a TV.

The Frame features a motion sensor that triggers “Art Mode” when entering the room, which displays over 1,400 new and classic works of art when the TV isn’t in use. You can also display your own media, such as pictures, to give The Frame a more personal touch.

The Frame is more than an elegant design, though. The 4K QLED screen produces a great picture, with 4K scaling. To maintain the seamless “Frame” effect, it connects to devices via a connection box that supports HDMI and Ethernet and can be placed up to 16 feet away. If you’re looking for something more unique and stylish, Samsung’s The Frame is the perfect option.

Best budget: TCL 4-Series (43S435)

Why it made the cut: If you want a decent TV on a budget, the TCL 40S435 is a great choice.


  • Size: 43”
  • Display: LED 4K
  • Refresh rate: 60Hz
  • Ports: HDMI 2.0 x 3, USB 2.0, Ethernet, Headphone Jack


  • Very affordable
  • Excellent 4K display
  • Roku TV


  • No HDMI 2.1

For $259.99, the TCL 4-Series is an easy choice if you don’t want to spend a lot of money. It’s not the most advanced 4K display on the market, but at this size, and at this price, it more than gets the job done to enjoy your favorite shows and video games.

While it doesn’t have many advanced features, the 4-Series features the Roku operating system, so it feels like there’s a streaming device built in. TCL rose to prominence in large part because of its Roku TVs, and it’s easy to see why when you get an experience like this for such a low price.

It isn’t entirely devoid of tricks, though. For example, the TCL 4-Series features a companion smartphone app, so you can control the TV without tracking down the remote. You also get three HDMI ports, so you can hook up a video game console, and a USB port for hooking up external media.


Q: How far should I sit from a 40-inch TV?

For the optimal viewing experience, you should sit about 6 feet from a 40-inch TV, according to this distance calculator. Anything farther than that and you might have difficulty making out details. You can sit closer than 6 feet, but we wouldn’t recommend sitting too close because you risk straining your eyes. For a better understanding of how far you should sit from your TV, check out our guide covering this topic. In short, how far you sit from your TV plays a big part in your overall viewing experience.

Q: Is a 40-inch TV good for the bedroom?

For small to medium-size bedrooms, a 40-inch TV is a solid option. They offer a pleasant viewing experience but fade into the background when not in use. Plus, 40-inch TVs aren’t as heavy as larger models, so they’re easier to mount and move around when needed.

Q: Is it worth it to buy a 4K TV?

If you currently own a 1080p TV and you’re happy with it, there’s no need to upgrade to 4K. That said, you should not buy a new 1080p TV. Most new TVs are 4K, and they’re available at very good prices. An increasingly large number of streaming platforms offer 4K content, not to mention multiple generations of game consoles, making now a good time to switch.

Final thoughts on the best 40-inch TVs

A 40-inch TV is a great fit for small living rooms, bedrooms, and secondary spaces like workshops and guest rooms. It’s also a good starting point if you’re replacing a very old TV and don’t want to spend too much money.

More affordable than their larger siblings, the best 40-inch TVs make it a little more affordable to get the best new features. They also make it possible to spend a lot less money if you just want something that works. As always, we recommend picking a TV that fits your space. For a lot of people, what manufacturers call small, we call the perfect size.

All About Lights

Engineers pave way for next-gen deep ultraviolet lasers

Post Republished By Alfonso Hilsaca Eljadue (.com)

Turco Hilsaca, del Cristo Hilsaca


Cornell engineers have created a deep-ultraviolet laser using semiconductor materials that show great promise for improving the use of ultraviolet light for sterilizing medical tools, purifying water, sensing hazardous gases and enabling precision photolithography, among other applications.

When it comes to ultraviolet light, two important qualities are frequency – certain frequencies are best for destroying viruses or sensing molecules – and linewidth, a measure of the laser’s precision. Scientists and engineers seek sources of higher quality, more efficient ultraviolet light emission, but it’s challenging to work with the semiconductor materials that can enable this.

A paper published March 11 in the journal AIP Advances details how Cornell scientists produced an aluminum gallium nitride-based device capable of emitting a deep-ultraviolet laser at sought-after wavelengths and modal linewidths.

“It is known that this is a material that is suitable, but it was a materials synthesis problem,” said Len van Deurzen, a doctoral student in applied and engineering physics who led the research. “The challenge is making the materials pure enough that they’re actually going to be useful and sustain the requirements of a laser.”

It was a challenge van Deurzen accepted during the COVID-19 pandemic when the market began to boom for ultraviolet LEDs and other tools capable of detecting and eliminating the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

“I wanted a research project that could have impact,” van Deurzen said, “and the pandemic really amplified the need for improved ultraviolet devices.”

Under the guidance of the paper’s senior authors, Debdeep Jena and Huili Grace Xing, both professors of materials science and engineering and of electrical and computer engineering, the team used molecular beam epitaxy, a crystal growth technique, to grow a high-quality crystal of aluminum nitride.

“We need multiple aluminum gallium nitride layers stacked on top of each other and one important parameter is the interface quality between those layers,” van Deurzen said. “We can grow very sharp interfaces without the impurities and dislocations that form with other growth techniques.”

The second challenge was to create an optical cavity from the stacked layers that could be used to trap the emitted light and promote stimulated emission, which is necessary for the laser. The cavity was created in the form of a small, micron-scale resonator on an aluminum nitride chip that van Deurzen was able to develop with the help of the Cornell NanoScale Science and Technology Facility.

“It is a real privilege to be able to grow the materials and produce the chip at two state-of-the-art facilities located in the same building,” said van Deurzen, referring to Duffield Hall. “You just go from the third floor to the basement.”

Once completed, the laser was able to achieve peak gain at a wavelength of 284 nanometers and modal linewidths on the order of 0.1 nanometers. The linewidth is an order of magnitude more precise than similar devices and demonstrates the growth method’s applicability towards improved ultraviolet light emitters.

The Cornell deep-ultraviolet laser is optically pumped, meaning it produces certain requirements for lasing by inputting photons into the device. The next step in the research, according to Jena, is using the same materials platform to realize a laser that is driven by an electrical current from a battery – a more practical energy source for commercially available light-emitting devices.

“Deep-ultraviolet lasers arguably are the final frontier in semiconductor materials and devices with immense long-term payoffs,” said Jena, the David E. Burr Professor of Engineering and the Richard E. Lunquist Sesquicentennial Faculty Fellow. “Yet it is also the kind of problem that a young graduate student can get into and make an immediate impact.”

The paper’s co-authors include doctoral student Ryan Page and research associates Vladimir Protasenko and Kazuki Nomoto. The research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and was supported by user facilities funded by the National Science Foundation.

Syl Kacapyr is associate director of marketing and communications for the College of Engineering.